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Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life
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Fig. 4-7

Pentane

(a) Structural isomers

(b) Geometric isomers

2-methyl butane

cis isomer: The two Xs are

on the same side.

trans isomer: The two Xs are

on opposite sides.

(c) Enantiomers

L isomer

D isomer

Slide 23

Fig. 4-7a

Fig. 4-7a

(a) Structural isomers

2-methyl butane

Pentane

Slide 24

Fig. 4-7b

Fig. 4-7b

(b) Geometric isomers

cis isomer: The two Xs are

on the same side.

trans isomer: The two Xs are

on opposite sides.

Slide 25

Fig. 4-7c

Fig. 4-7c

(c) Enantiomers

L isomer

D isomer

Slide 26

Enantiomers are important in the pharmaceutical industry

Enantiomers are important in the pharmaceutical industry

Two enantiomers of a drug may have different effects

Differing effects of enantiomers demonstrate that organisms are sensitive to even subtle variations in molecules

Animation: L-Dopa

Slide 27

Fig. 4-8

Fig. 4-8

Drug

Ibuprofen

Albuterol

Condition

Pain;

inflammation

Astha

Effective

Enantiomer

S-Ibuprofen

R-Albuterol

R-Ibuprofen

S-Albuterol

Ineffective

Enantiomer

Slide 28

Concept 4.3: A small number of chemical groups are key to the functioning of biological molecules

Concept 4.3: A small number of chemical groups are key to the functioning of biological molecules

Distinctive properties of organic molecules depend not only on the carbon skeleton but also on the molecular components attached to it

A number of characteristic groups are often attached to skeletons of organic molecules

Slide 29

The Chemical Groups Most Important in the Processes of Life

The Chemical Groups Most Important in the Processes of Life

Functional groups are the components of organic molecules that are most commonly involved in chemical reactions

The number and arrangement of functional groups give each molecule its unique properties

Slide 30

Fig. 4-9

Fig. 4-9

Estradiol

Testosterone

Slide 31

The seven functional groups that are most important in the chemistry of life:

The seven functional groups that are most important in the chemistry of life:

Hydroxyl group

Carbonyl group

Carboxyl group

Amino group

Sulfhydryl group

Phosphate group

Methyl group

Slide 32

Fig. 4-10a

Fig. 4-10a

Hydroxyl

CHEMICAL

GROUP

STRUCTURE

NAME OF COMPOUND

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