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Direct heat utilization of geothermal energy
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Rotary drilling

Rotary drilling

Cable drilling

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Wells Pumps

Wells Pumps

Lineshaft Ц motor on surface (most common in the US) (often used with variable frequency drive) <250 m

Submersible Ц motor below water (most common in Europe)

Two types used:

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Wells Pumps

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Wells Pumps

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Heat Exchangers

Heat Exchangers

Shell and tube

Plate

Downhole

Room heat convectors

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Plate heat exchanger

Plate heat exchanger

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Downhole heat exchanger

Downhole heat exchanger

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Heat Exchangers

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Piping (1)

Piping (1)

Above ground

Below ground

Problems

- Metallic - external corrosion Ц if direct buried

- Non-metallic <100∞C

Location

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Piping (2)

Piping (2)

Carbon steel >100oC

Expansion loops or bellows

FRP or PVC <100oC Ц Fiberglass reinforced plastic and polyvinylchloride

AC Ц Asbestos cement

Environmental limitation

Longest = Deildartunga Ц Akranes, Iceland at 62 km

Cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) good to 90oC and 550 Pa (5.5 bar) Ц used for snow melting

Material

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Heat Exchangers

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Heat Exchangers

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Swimming, Bathing and Balneology (1)

Swimming, Bathing and Balneology (1)

Main Users (past and present)

Romans

Chinese

Ottomans (Turks)

Japanese

Central Europeans

American Indians (Mexico and USA regions)

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Swimming, Bathing and Balneology (2)

Swimming, Bathing and Balneology (2)

Spa, Belgium

Originator of the name

Resort town

Japan

2200 hot springs

100 million guests per year

Beppu

Most famous hot springs city

New Zealand Ц Rotorua

WWII Ц Queen Elizabeth Hospital

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Swimming, Bathing and Balneology (3)

Swimming, Bathing and Balneology (3)

Former Czechoslovakia

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