Monks were spiritual leaders (obviously)
They lived in monasteries that acted like trade schools and YMCAs
Role of Church
They spent years transcribing the Bible since the printing press wasn’t used in Europe yet.
Churches and Cathedrals during the Middle Ages
Role of Church
Since there were no strong empires or kingdoms the Church was one organization that had respect and power.
Popes were more powerful than kings!
Invented in Pisa 13th century
By 15th century Italy making thousands spectacles
Eyeglasses encouraged invention of fine instruments
Fine wheel cutters
Undermined Church authority
equal hours for day and night a new concept
Resisted by the church for a century
Every town wanted one
Public clocks installed in towers
Conquerors seized as spoils of war
Allowed individual autonomy
Work now measured by time
Europeans improved gunpowder to siege castles
Europeans focused on range and weight of projectiles: siege warfare
With improved metal casting, made world’s best cannon
The Roman Empire fell due to outside attacks and disease (brought on by trade)
The Middle Ages began as the Church replaced governments as the central authority.
Feudalism/ Manoralism came from people’s need for protection. Each member had rights and responsibilities.
Cultures interact through wars, such as the Crusades, and trade ideas such as democratic ideas or religious ideas
Any questions before the quiz?
1. What 2 reasons did the Roman empire cease to be a powerful empire?