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Viruses and HIV
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In the lysogenic cycle, the virus reproduces by first injecting its genetic material, indicated by the red line, into the host cell's genetic instructions.

Slide 12

Viruses Enter Living Cells

Viruses Enter Living Cells

Viruses enter bacterial cells by punching a hole in the cells wall and injecting its DNA

Slide 13

Viruses Enter Living Cells

Viruses Enter Living Cells

Viruses enter plant cells through tiny rips in the cell wall.

Viruses enter animal cells by endocytosis.

Slide 14

Mutating viruses

Mutating viruses

Viruses can mutate when they copy the genetic material

Copy something wrong

Mistake proves useful

More powerful virus (more infectious)

Viruses dont mutate often, except

Influenza

HIV

Slide 15

Viruses are host cell specific.

Viruses are host cell specific.

Most viruses are restricted to certain kinds of cells (those that infect plants cannot infect animal cells).

Why?

Scientists think that viruses originated from escaped genetic material from host cells.

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Viruses can be beneficial

Viruses can be beneficial

Bacteriophages attack & destroy bacteria

Baculovirus ebola-like virus that attacks insects

Could use for pest control in crops

Cabbage loopers eat

cabbage crops

Virus can kill pests in days

(its really gross)

and then there are those that are not so good.

Slide 17

Mutating viruses

Slide 18

The spread of West Nile virus (1999  2002)  bird, horse, mosquito or human

The spread of West Nile virus (1999 2002) bird, horse, mosquito or human

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Also important

Also important

Any agent (not just viruses) that causes disease is a pathogen.

When a virus inserts its genetic material into a hosts DNA, it is called a provirus.

Some viruses replicate very slowly and only cause damage when the conditions are right. (cold sores)

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Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)

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Basic Structure

Basic Structure

Viral envelope lipid bilayer; glycoproteins protrude from surface

Glycoproteins enable virus to recognize surface proteins of special immune cells and to enter the cell (like a key to the cells door)

2 strands RNA only 9 genes; 3 are found in many viruses (structural proteins)

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