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The neuron
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Slide 10

How is resting potential maintained?

How is resting potential maintained?

Ion Distribution

Slide 11

How is resting potential maintained?

How is resting potential maintained?

At rest, the sodium gates are closed.

Membrane is 50 times more permeable to K+ ions causing them to leak out.

This causes outside of membrane to have an abundance of + charges compared to inside. The inside of the membrane is negative compared to the outside. This is helped by the (-) proteins etc.

The sodium-potassium pump pulls 2 K+ ions in for 3 Na+ ions sent out. This further creates a charge difference!!

Slide 12

Action Potential

Action Potential

The mechanism by which neurons send impulses. They are comprised of electrical signals generated at the soma and moving along the axon toward the end opposite the soma (motor neurons)

Action potentials occur in two stages:

Depolarization

Repolarization

Slide 13

Depolarization in an action potential

Depolarization in an action potential

When the neuron is excited past its Threshold the following events occur:

Sodium ions (Na+) rush into the axon.

This neutralizes the negative ions inside.

The inside of the axon becomes temporarily (+) while the outside becomes temporarily (-). The reversal of charge is known as depolarization

Nearby Sodium (Na+) channels open to continue the depolarization.

Slide 14

Depolarization in an action potential

Slide 15

Lets Have a look.

Lets Have a look.

http://www.mcgrawhill.ca/school/booksites/biology/student+resources/toc/unit+4+homeostasis+maintaining+dynamic+equilibrium/chapter+12+the+nervous+system/cool+stuff+to+see+and+do/movie+channel+behaviour.php

Slide 16

Repolarization

Repolarization

This is the restoring of the (+) charge on the outside of the axon and (-) on the inside.

Potassium gates open and potassium floods out.

This generates positive charge on the outside of membrane.

Sodium Channels Close (no + charges can get inside)

The Sodium/Potassium pump rapidly moves Sodium out of the cell.

Further creates the (+) charge outside with a (-) charge inside.

Slide 17

Repolarization

Slide 18

Refractory Period

Refractory Period

Brief period of time between the triggering of an impulse and when it is available for another.

NO NEW action potentials can be created during this time.

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