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Acids and Bases. General properties
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Slide 1

Acids and Bases

Acids and Bases

PGCC CHM 101 Sinex

Slide 2

General properties

General properties

ACIDS

Taste sour

Turn litmus

React with active metals Fe, Zn

React with bases

BASES

Taste bitter

Turn litmus

Feel soapy or slippery (react with fats to make soap)

React with acids

blue to red

red to blue

Slide 3

Definitions

Definitions

Acids produce H+

Bases - produce OH-

Acids donate H+

Bases accept H+

Acids accept e- pair

Bases donate e- pair

Arrehenius

Bronsted-Lowry

Lewis

only in water

any solvent

used in organic chemistry,

wider range of substances

Slide 4

Examples

Examples

Arrhenius

Bronsted-Lowry

Lewis

HCl

NaOH

HCl

NH3

:NH3

BF3

HCN

The hydrogen ion in aqueous solution

H+ + H2O  H3O+ (hydronium ion)

Slide 5

The Bronsted-Lowry Concept

The Bronsted-Lowry Concept

Conjugate pairs

HCl Cl-

CH3COOH CH3COO-

NH4+ NH3

HNO3 NO3-

How does a conjugate pair differ?

H+ transfer

Slide 6

Neutralization

Neutralization

In general: Acid + Base  Salt + Water

All neutralization reactions are double displacement reactions.

HCl + NaOH  NaCl + HOH

HCl + Mg(OH)2 

H2SO4 + NaHCO3 

Slide 7

H2O  H+ + OH-

H2O  H+ + OH-

Does pure water conduct electrical current?

(H+)(OH-) = 10-14

For pure water: (H+) = (OH-) = 10-7M

This is neutrality and at 25oC is a pH = 7.

Water is a very, very, very weak electrolyte.

How are (H+) and (OH-) related?

water

Slide 8

HA

HA

Lets examine the behavior of an acid, HA, in aqueous solution.

What happens to the HA molecules in solution?

Slide 9

HA

HA

H+

A-

Strong Acid

100% dissociation of HA

Would the solution be conductive?

Slide 10

HA

HA

H+

A-

Weak Acid

Partial dissociation of HA

Would the solution be conductive?

Slide 11

HA

HA

H+

A-

Weak Acid

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