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Slide 1

Balancing Equations:

Balancing Equations:

Chemical and Nuclear

Slide 2

How molecules are symbolized

How molecules are symbolized

Cl2 2Cl 2Cl2

Molecules may also have brackets to indicate numbers of atoms. E.g. Ca(OH)2

Notice that the OH is a group

The 2 refers to both H and O

How many of each atom are in the following?

a) NaOH

b) Ca(OH)2

c) 3Ca(OH)2

Na = 1, O = 1, H = 1

Ca = 1, O = 2, H = 2

Ca = 3, O = 6, H = 6

Slide 3

Balancing equations: MgO

Balancing equations: MgO

The law of conservation of mass states that matter can neither be created or destroyed

Thus, atoms are neither created or destroyed, only rearranged in a chemical reaction

Thus, the number of a particular atom is the same on both sides of a chemical equation

Example: Magnesium + Oxygen (from lab)

Mg + O2  MgO

However, this is not balanced

Left: Mg = 1, O = 2

Right: Mg = 1, O = 1

Slide 4

Balance equations by inspection

Balance equations by inspection

Hints: start with elements that occur in one compound on each side. Treat polyatomic ions that repeat as if they were a single entity.

5

2

3

3.5

2

7

4

6

2

2

2

2

6

3

C2H6 + O2  CO2 + H2O

a) P4 + O2  P4O10

b) Li + H2O  H2 + LiOH

c) Bi(NO3)3 + K2S  Bi2S3 + KNO3

d) C2H6 + O2  CO2 + H2O

From Mg + O2  MgO

2Mg + O2  2MgO is correct

Mg + ½O2  MgO is incorrect

Mg2 + O2  2MgO is incorrect

4Mg + 2 O2  4MgO is incorrect

Slide 5

Balance these skeleton equations:

Balance these skeleton equations:

a) Mg + 2HCl  MgCl2 + H2

b) 3Ca + N2  Ca3N2

c) NH4NO3  N2O + 2H2O

d) 2BiCl3 + 3H2S  Bi2S3 + 6HCl

e) 2C4H10 + 13O2  8CO2 + 10H2O

f) 6O2 + C6H12O6  6CO2 + 6H2O

g) 3NO2 + H2O  2HNO3 + NO

h) Cr2(SO4)3+ 6NaOH  2Cr(OH)3+ 3Na2SO4

i) Al4C3 + 12H2O  3CH4 + 4Al(OH)3

Slide 6

Returning to reaction types

Returning to reaction types

We have looked at several types of reactions without worrying about balancing

However, all equations should be balanced

Predict the products and balance these:

(recall, metals above replace metals below, reactions with water yield metal hydroxides)

Cu + Fe2(SO4)3

NR (no reaction)

Zn + Li2CO3

Cu + AlCl3

Fe + CuSO4 

LiOH + H2

Al2O3

2

Ni + NaCl 

Al + CuCl2 

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