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The Moon Geology, Exploration, Origin
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Slide 7

A Brief History of Lunar Exploration

A Brief History of Lunar Exploration

1959: Soviet Lunas 1, 2, 3 orbited around Moon

1960s: US Ranger

- flyby mission

- first space pictures

- many TV cameras

1966-67: Lunar Orbiter

- 5 orbiting spacecraft

- full coverage of pictures

1966-68: Lunar Surveyor

- surveying for landing sites

- testing the soil (sink?)

Slide 8

Highlights from Apollo 11 mission

Highlights from Apollo 11 mission

launch: July 16th 1969

arrival at Moon: July 20th 1969

first humans to land on the Moon

Neil Armstrong

Buzz Aldrin

Michael Collins

Slide 9

On July 20, 1969, after a four day trip, the Apollo astronauts arrived

On July 20, 1969, after a four day trip, the Apollo astronauts arrived

at the Moon. This photo of Earthrise over the lunar horizon is one of

the most famous images returned from the space program, although

even the astronauts themselves cannot remember who actually took it.

Slide 10

First steps on the Moon

First steps on the Moon

July 20th 1969

- Neil Armstrong

- Buzz Aldrin

Slide 11

Touchdown of Moon astronauts near the coast of Hawaii on July 26th 1969

Touchdown of Moon astronauts near the coast of Hawaii on July 26th 1969

Slide 12

Mars Express: Radar Experiment

Mars Express: Radar Experiment

Apollo 1-10: pre-landing missions (Apollo 1 module fire killed 3 astronauts while being tested)

Apollo 11-17 landed (except Apollo 13, which had an explosion and returned to Earth) 12 different astronauts walked on the Moon during 1969-1972

Principal Scientific results of the Apollo missions:

The Moon is ancient and still preserves an early history (the first billion years) that must be common to all terrestrial planets.

The youngest Moon rocks are virtually as old as the oldest Earth rocks. The earliest processes and events that probably affected both planetary bodies can now only be found on the Moon.

Early in its history, the Moon was melted to great depths to form a "magma ocean." The lunar highlands contain the remnants of early, low density rocks that floated to the surface of the magma ocean.

The Moon is not a primordial object; it is an evolved terrestrial planet with internal zoning similar to that of Earth.

The Moon is lifeless; it contains no living organisms, fossils, or native organic compounds

Slide 13

Recent Lunar Exploration

Recent Lunar Exploration

1994: Clementine

- UV, IR, visible cameras

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