Streams are shown as a blue line on maps.
When contour lines cross a stream it looks like an upside down V.
The point in the V points
upstream. It opens in the direction the water is flowing.
Depression contours show areas of lower elevation.
Drawn like contour lines with marks on the inside.
Hachure marks- tick marks on inside of closed circle.
Hills are represented on a topographic map by a series of concentric contour lines in a rough circle
Closely spaced contour lines represent steep slopes.
Widely spaced contour lines represent gentle slopes.
A benchmark is a place where exact elevation is known.
Shown by a B.M. on map
Ex: BM 60
The colors on a topographic map are symbolic of different map features.
Blue = water
Green = forest
Brown = contour lines
Black = cultural features (buildings, place names, boundary lines, roads, etc.)
Red = principal roads
Pink = urban areas
Purple = revisions to an older map, compiled from aerial photos. If an area has become urbanized, this may be shown as purple shading on the new, revised map.
Map scale indicates your distance along the ground, or the amount of ground covered by the map.
USGS- United States Geologic Survey
one unit on the map is equal to 24,000 units of the same size on the ground.
Ex:1 inch on the map = 24000 inches on Earth.
Or after converting 1 inch = 2000ft.
Bar scale-indicated by a line or bar with distances marked in miles, feet, or kilometers.
Reading a topographic map- Map Scale
A topographic profile is a cross-sectional view along a line drawn through a portion of a topographic map.
It is like taking a slice out of a portion of the Earth and looking at it from the side.