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Enzymes

Enzymes

Mr Potter

Slide 2

Lesson Objectives

Lesson Objectives

Enzyme unit overview

What are they?

How they work

Activation energy

What controls their activity

Rates of reaction

Substrate/enzyme concentrations

Temperature, pH

Enzyme inhibitors

Practical to demonstrate Catalase activity in different tissue samples

Slide 3

Previous related topics covered?

Previous related topics covered?

Enzyme controlled reactions?

Proteins?

Lipase, protease, pectinase, amylase etc?

Lock & Key molecular structures?

Slide 4

By the end of the unit you should be able to:-

By the end of the unit you should be able to:-

Explain enzymes as Globular Proteins which act as catalysts

Explain their catalytic action in terms of lowering activation energy

Describe examples of enzyme-catalysed reactions

Discuss factors affecting reaction rates and inhibition

Describe how to investigate these effects experimentally

Slide 5

Enzymes:-

Enzymes:-

Are defined as a BIOLOGICAL catalyst i.e. something that speeds up a reaction. Up to 1012 fold

Usually end in ase.

Discovered in 1900 in yeasts. Some 40,000 in human cells

Control almost every metabolic reaction in living organisms

Are globular proteins coiled into a very precise 3-dimentional shape with hydrophilic side chains making them soluble

Possess an active site such as a cleft in the molecule onto which other substrate molecules can bind to form an enzyme-substrate complex

Once the substrate has been either synthesised or split, enzymes can be re-used.

Do not create reactions

Widely used in industrial cleaning

Often require co-factors (co-enzymes) to function metal ions, or vitamin derivatives

Slide 6

By the end of the unit you should be able to:-

Slide 7

Amylase + starch substrate

Amylase + starch substrate

Slide 8

How do enzymes work?

How do enzymes work?

Reaction Mechanism

In any chemical reaction a substrate is converted into a product.

In an enzyme catalysed reaction the substrate first binds to the active site of the enzyme to form the enzyme-substrate complex

Slide 9

How do enzymes work?

Slide 10

Molecule Geometry

Molecule Geometry

Substrate molecule fits into the enzyme like a lock & key.

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