Class Opener: How are Satellites classified? What country launched the first satellite?
Grade 11 Physics
describe motion of spacecraft
Derive the expression for escape velocity.
Calculate energy changes in the gravitational field for spacecraft leaving the Earth and the solar system
show an understanding of geostationary orbits and their application
Russia's Sputnik 1, the world's first man-made satellite was launched from Baykonur Cosmodrome!
Baykonur is used for many Satellite rocket launches!
International Launch Services is an unparalleled success in the space industry setting the standard for Russian-American space cooperation. http://www.ilslaunch.com/about-us/ils-legacy
Baykonur has many jobs for engineers and scientists!
LEO Low Earth Orbit, Polar
MEO Medium Earth Orbit, polar and elliptical
HEO High Earth Orbit, geostationary
GEO Geosynchronous Orbit
Altitude (600 to 1600 km)
Revolution time: 90 min - 3 hours.
Reduces transmission delay
Eliminates need for bulky receiving equipment.
Smaller coverage area.
Shorter life span (5-8 yrs.) than GEOs (10 yrs).
Subdivisions: Little, Big, and Mega (Super) LEOs.
Orbit: 375 miles, 600 km.
Revolution time: 100 min.
Speed: 7600 m/s
Concerns: Orbit decay from gravity and solar output. During “solar maximum”, the densities at all altitudes are enhanced, and the drag effects on satellites are much larger than during times of solar minimum.
Orbit is synchronous with the earths rotation.
From the ground the satellite appears fixed.
Altitude is about 36,000 km.
Coverage to 40% of planet per satellite.