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Genetic Engineering

Genetic Engineering

Genetic Engineers can alter the DNA code of living organisms.

Selective Breeding

Recombinant DNA

PCR

Gel Electrophoresis

Transgenic Organisms

Slide 2

Selective Breeding

Selective Breeding

Breed only those plants or animals with desirable traits

People have been using selective breeding for 1000s of years with farm crops and domesticated animals.

Slide 3

Recombinant DNA

Recombinant DNA

The ability to combine the DNA of one organism with the DNA of another organism.

Recombinant DNA technology was first used in the 1970s with bacteria.

Slide 4

Recombinant Bacteria

Recombinant Bacteria

Remove bacterial DNA (plasmid).

Cut the Bacterial DNA with restriction enzymes.

Cut the DNA from another organism with restriction enzymes.

Combine the cut pieces of DNA together with another enzyme and insert them into bacteria.

Reproduce the recombinant bacteria.

The foreign genes will be expressed in the bacteria.

Slide 5

Benefits of Recombinant Bacteria

Benefits of Recombinant Bacteria

Bacteria can make human insulin or human growth hormone.

Bacteria can be engineered to eat oil spills.

Slide 6

The DNA of plants and animals can also be altered.

The DNA of plants and animals can also be altered.

PLANTS

disease-resistant and insect-resistant crops

2. Hardier fruit

3. 70-75% of food in supermarket is genetically modified.

Slide 7

How to Create a Genetically Modified Plant

How to Create a Genetically Modified Plant

1.Create recombinant bacteria with desired gene.

2. Allow the bacteria to infect" the plant cells.

3. Desired gene is inserted into plant chromosomes.

Slide 8

What do you think about eating genetically modified foods?

What do you think about eating genetically modified foods?

Slide 9

Genetically modified organisms are called transgenic organisms.

Genetically modified organisms are called transgenic organisms.

TRANSGENIC ANIMALS

Mice used to study human immune system

Chickens more resistant to infections

Cows increase milk supply and leaner meat

4. Goats, sheep and pigs produce human proteins in their milk

Slide 10

Human DNA in a Goat Cell

Human DNA in a Goat Cell

This goat contains a human gene that codes for a blood clotting agent. The blood clotting agent can be harvested in the goats milk.

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