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Apoptosis evolved early in animal evolution and is essential for the development and maintenance of all animals

Apoptosis evolved early in animal evolution and is essential for the development and maintenance of all animals

Apoptosis may be involved in some diseases (for example, Parkinsonís and Alzheimerís); interference with apoptosis may contribute to some cancers

Slide 75

Fig. 11-21

Fig. 11-21

Interdigital tissue

1 mm

Slide 76

Fig. 11-UN1

Fig. 11-UN1

Reception

Transduction

Response

Receptor

Relay molecules

Signaling

molecule

Activation

of cellular

response

1

2

3

Slide 77

Fig. 11-UN2

Fig. 11-UN2

Slide 78

You should now be able to:

You should now be able to:

Describe the nature of a ligand-receptor interaction and state how such interactions initiate a signal-transduction system

Compare and contrast G protein-coupled receptors, tyrosine kinase receptors, and ligand-gated ion channels

List two advantages of a multistep pathway in the transduction stage of cell signaling

Explain how an original signal molecule can produce a cellular response when it may not even enter the target cell

Slide 79

Define the term second messenger; briefly describe the role of these molecules in signaling pathways

Define the term second messenger; briefly describe the role of these molecules in signaling pathways

Explain why different types of cells may respond differently to the same signal molecule

Describe the role of apoptosis in normal development and degenerative disease in vertebrates

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