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Enzymes
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Enzymes

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What Are Enzymes?

Most enzymes are Proteins (tertiary and quaternary structures)

Act as Catalyst to accelerates a reaction

Not permanently changed in the process

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Enzymes

Are specific for what they will catalyze

Are Reusable

End in ase

-Sucrase

-Lactase

-Maltase

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How do enzymes Work?

Enzymes work by weakening bonds which lowers activation energy

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Enzymes

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Enzyme-Substrate Complex

The substance (reactant) an enzyme acts on is the substrate

Substrate

Joins

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Active Site

A restricted region of an enzyme molecule which binds to the substrate.

Substrate

Active Site

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Induced Fit

A change in the shape of an enzymes active site

Induced by the substrate

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Induced Fit

A change in the configuration of an enzymes active site (H+ and ionic bonds are involved).

Induced by the substrate.

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What Affects Enzyme Activity?

Three factors:

1. Environmental Conditions

2. Cofactors and Coenzymes

3. Enzyme Inhibitors

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1. Environmental Conditions

1. Extreme Temperature are the most dangerous

- high temps may denature (unfold) the enzyme.

2. pH (most like 6 - 8 pH near neutral)

3. Ionic concentration (salt ions)

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2. Cofactors and Coenzymes

Inorganic substances (zinc, iron) and vitamins (respectively) are sometimes need for proper enzymatic activity.

Example:

Iron must be present in the quaternary structure - hemoglobin in order for it to pick up oxygen.

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