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Acid and Base Balance and Imbalance
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Slide 1

Acid and Base Balance and Imbalance

Acid and Base Balance and Imbalance

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Slide 2

pH Review

pH Review

pH = - log [H+]

H+ is really a proton

Range is from 0 - 14

If [H+] is high, the solution is acidic; pH < 7

If [H+] is low, the solution is basic or alkaline ; pH > 7

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Slide 3

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Slide 5

Acids are H+ donors.

Acids are H+ donors.

Bases are H+ acceptors, or give up OH- in solution.

Acids and bases can be:

Strong Ц dissociate completely in solution

HCl, NaOH

Weak Ц dissociate only partially in solution

Lactic acid, carbonic acid

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Slide 6

The Body and pH

The Body and pH

Homeostasis of pH is tightly controlled

Extracellular fluid = 7.4

Blood = 7.35 Ц 7.45

< 6.8 or > 8.0 death occurs

Acidosis (acidemia) below 7.35

Alkalosis (alkalemia) above 7.45

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Slide 7

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Slide 8

Small changes in pH can produce major disturbances

Small changes in pH can produce major disturbances

Most enzymes function only with narrow pH ranges

Acid-base balance can also affect electrolytes (Na+, K+, Cl-)

Can also affect hormones

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Slide 9

The body produces more acids than bases

The body produces more acids than bases

Acids take in with foods

Acids produced by metabolism of lipids and proteins

Cellular metabolism produces CO2.

CO2 + H20 ↔ H2CO3 ↔ H+ + HCO3-

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Slide 10

Control of Acids

Control of Acids

Buffer systems

Take up H+ or release H+ as conditions change

Buffer pairs Ц weak acid and a base

Exchange a strong acid or base for a weak one

Results in a much smaller pH change

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Slide 11

Bicarbonate buffer

Bicarbonate buffer

Sodium Bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and carbonic acid (H2CO3)

Maintain a 20:1 ratio : HCO3- : H2CO3

HCl + NaHCO3 ↔ H2CO3 + NaCl

NaOH + H2CO3 ↔ NaHCO3 + H2O

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Slide 12

Phosphate buffer

Phosphate buffer

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