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The Outer Layers of the Sun
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The large magnetic fields in sunspots decrease the flow of heat via convection causing the sunspot to become cool.

The large magnetic fields in sunspots decrease the flow of heat via convection causing the sunspot to become cool.

Sunspots are low temperature regions in the photosphere

Slide 15

Sunspot cycle

Sunspot cycle

Slide 16

Sunspots can be used to measure the rotation of the Sun

Sunspots can be used to measure the rotation of the Sun

Near the equator the Sun rotates once in 25 days.

The poles rotate more slowly, about once every 36 days.

Slide 17

Sunspot cycle

Sunspot cycle

Each 11 years, the Sunís magnetic field changes direction. Overall cycle is 22 years.

Slide 18

Granulation

Granulation

Slide 19

What direct observational evidence supports the model of thermonuclear reactions in the Sunís core?

What direct observational evidence supports the model of thermonuclear reactions in the Sunís core?

Neutrinos

Gamma rays

Sun spot counts

WMD inspections

Slide 20

Solar magnetic fields also create other phenomena

Solar magnetic fields also create other phenomena

Prominences

Flares

Solar wind

Coronal mass ejections

Slide 21

Particles spiral around magnetic field lines

Particles spiral around magnetic field lines

Magnetic field

Motion of charged particle (electron, proton, nucleus)

Particles, that we see, get trapped along magnetic field lines, that we donít see, stretching out from the Sun.

Slide 22

Prominences Cooler than photosphere.

Prominences Cooler than photosphere.

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Solar flares Hotter, up to 40,000,000 K More energetic

Solar flares Hotter, up to 40,000,000 K More energetic

Slide 24

Coronal mass ejections eruption of gas, can reach Earth and affect aurora, satellites

Coronal mass ejections eruption of gas, can reach Earth and affect aurora, satellites

Movie

Slide 25

Coronal mass ejection

Coronal mass ejection

Movie

Slide 26

Which statement is not correct?

Which statement is not correct?

The solar coronal temperature is about 106 K.

Sunspots are very cool and dark, with temperatures of about 300 K.

The Sunís core has a temperature about 107 K.

The chromosphere is hotter than the photosphere.

Slide 27

Guiding Questions

Guiding Questions

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