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Roman Republic
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PREVIEW

Comparisons with US government

Balance of power

Senate and House of Representatives

Consul (= president)

Tribune (veto power)

Courts (independent)

Military power (?)

Censor (?)

Slide 9

Military Organization

Military Organization

Centuries — 100 armed men

Headed by Centurian (from the ranks)

Maniples—3 Centuries

Could move quickly through difficult terrain (better than phalanx)

Independent decisions (tribunes)

Legions—groups of Maniples

6000 men

Supported by light cavalry

Discipline

Death for individual insubordination

Decimation for cowardice

Slide 10

Roman Expansion (in Italy)

Roman Expansion (in Italy)

Conquest of Italy

Took 200 years

Granted full or partial citizenship

Tax and legal benefits

Developed loyalty in conquered Italian areas

Invasion by King Pyrrhus (pyrrhic victory)

Roman colonies

Established in strategic locations

Established by treaty

Troops sent when needed

Customs of the area left intact

Colonies were mostly for trade, with some military purposes

Slide 11

Roman Expansion (outside Italy)

Roman Expansion (outside Italy)

Punic Wars

Phoenicians (Poeni)

Sicily

Hannibal attacked Rome

Help of non-Roman Italians(?)

Slide 12

Roman Expansion (outside Italy)

Roman Expansion (outside Italy)

Conquest of the East and West

Allies rather than servants or slaves

Toleration

Corruption in the Greek kingdoms

Some states given to the Romans

Fast, direct attacks with strong determination and discipline

Outnumbered in most battles

Victory over Parthia (parthian shot)

Slide 13

Building an Empire

Building an Empire

Structure of the "empire"

Still a republican form of government

Checks and balances

Two parties emerged

Optimares (conservatives, Cato and Cicero)

Populares (power to people)

Family

Values (according to the Romans)

Piety

Discipline

Frugality

Not greedy

Righteous wars

Never quit

Slide 14

Building an Empire

Building an Empire

Status of Women

Absence of men at war

Women gained economic power

Ability to divorce and retain property

Morals eventually eroded, in part because home-life eroded

Slide 15

Building an Empire

Building an Empire

Slavery

Conquests increased the number of slaves

Constituted 40% of the population

Conditions were poor

Romans feared slave uprising

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