Execution of the laws or legislation?
National Security Directives
A directive issued to officers of the executive branch, requiring them to take or stop taking an action, alter policy, change management practices, or accept a delegation of authority.
Informal in history
Published in Federal Register, numbered
States a condition, declares law and requires obedience, or recognizes an event. (Also pardons)
Binding on the public.
Published in the Federal Register
Pronouncement directed to executive branch officials
No publication in Federal Register
Below the radar of MCs and media
Formal declaration to an agency or department head of a presidential national security decision, requiring follow-up.
Designed at the National Security Council
Problems with small group dynamics, Congress’ exclusion
The president refuses to spend funds appropriated by Congress
Congress has restricted this practice (1974, 1987)
He can only defer spending if:
A “special contingency”
To achieve savings through more efficient operations
He can only propose to permanently rescind funds, but Congress must approve within 45 days
Since 1980s, provide the president’s interpretation of a law, announce Constitutional limits on implementation of it, or indicate directions about how to administer it.