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Organic and Biological Molecules
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Slide 1

Simple Organic Chemistry

Simple Organic Chemistry

Basic Structure and Nomenclature

Slide 2

First Ten Alkanes

First Ten Alkanes

Alkane = CnH2n+2

Slide 3

Straight Chain Alkanes arent Straight

Straight Chain Alkanes arent Straight

C C bonds are sp3 hybridized

Butane, C4H10

Slide 4

Structural Shorthand

Structural Shorthand

Explicit hydrogens (those required to complete carbons valence) are usually left off of drawings of hydrocarbons

Line intersections represent carbon atoms

C1

C1

C2

C2

C3

C3

C4

C4

Slide 5

Structural Isomers

Structural Isomers

Isomers are molecules with the same chemical formula, but different organization of atoms (different bonding)

n-Pentane, C5H12

Isopentane, C5H12

Neopentane, C5H12

Slide 6

Newman Projections

Newman Projections

Ethane, C2H6

Rotation can occur around C C single bonds

Slide 7

Newman Projections

Newman Projections

Butane, C4H10

Slide 8

Cyclic Alkanes

Cyclic Alkanes

Cyclopropane, C3H6

Remember, explicit hydrogens are left out

Cyclobutane, C4H8

Cyclopentane, C5H10

Cyclohexane, C6H12

Cycloheptane, C7H14

Slide 9

Rules for Naming Alkanes (Nomenclature)

Rules for Naming Alkanes (Nomenclature)

For a branched hydrocarbon, the longest continuous chain

of carbon atoms gives the root name for the hydrocarbon

1

2

3

4

4 carbon chain = butane

Slide 10

Rules for Naming Alkanes (Nomenclature)

Rules for Naming Alkanes (Nomenclature)

When alkane groups appear as substituents, they

are named by dropping the -ane and adding -yl.

CH3 Methyl

CH2CH3 Ethyl

CH2CH2CH3 Propyl

CH2CH2CH2CH3 Butyl

Methyl

Slide 11

Rules for Naming Alkanes (Nomenclature)

Rules for Naming Alkanes (Nomenclature)

The positions of substituent groups are specified

by numbering the longest chain of carbon atoms

sequentially, starting at the end closest to the

branching.

Methyl

1

2

3

4

Slide 12

Rules for Naming Alkanes (Nomenclature)

Rules for Naming Alkanes (Nomenclature)

The location and name of each substituent are

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