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Organic and Biological Molecules
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followed by the root alkane name. The substituents

are listed in alphabetical order (irrespective of any

prefix), and the prefixes di-, tri-, etc. are used to

indicate multiple identical substituents.

Methyl

1

2

3

4

Name:

2-methylbutane

Slide 13

Nomenclature Practice

Nomenclature Practice

Name this compound

Step #1: For a branched hydrocarbon, the longest continuous chain of carbon atoms gives the root name for the hydrocarbon

1

5

2

4

3

9

6

8

7

9 carbons = nonane

Slide 14

Nomenclature Practice

Nomenclature Practice

Name this compound

1

5

2

4

3

9

6

8

7

9 carbons = nonane

Step #2: When alkane groups appear as substituents, they are named by dropping the -ane and adding -yl.

CH3 = methyl

chlorine = chloro

Slide 15

Nomenclature Practice

Nomenclature Practice

Name this compound

1

5

2

4

3

9

6

8

7

9 carbons = nonane

CH3 = methyl

chlorine = chloro

Step #3: The positions of substituent groups are specified by numbering the longest chain of carbon atoms sequentially, starting at the end closest to the branching.

1

9

NOT

9

1

Slide 16

Nomenclature Practice

Nomenclature Practice

Name this compound

1

5

2

4

3

9

6

8

7

9 carbons = nonane

CH3 = methyl

chlorine = chloro

Step #4: The location and name of each substituent are followed by the root alkane name. The substituents are listed in alphabetical order (irrespective of any prefix), and the prefixes di-, tri-, etc. are used to indicate multiple identical substituents.

2-chloro-3,6-dimethylnonane

Slide 17

Alkenes Contain Carbon-Carbon

Alkenes Contain Carbon-Carbon

Double bonds

Ethene

1  bond

1  bond

Slide 18

Alkynes Contain Carbon-Carbon Triple Bonds

Alkynes Contain Carbon-Carbon Triple Bonds

Ethyne

1  bond

1  bond

1  bond

Slide 19

Reactions of Alkenes and Alkynes

Reactions of Alkenes and Alkynes

Hydrogenation

Propene

Propane

Halogenation

1-Pentene

1-2-dibromopentene

Polymerization

Small molecules are joined together to form a large molecule

Polyethylene

Slide 20

Aromatic Hydrocarbons

Aromatic Hydrocarbons

Cyclic unsaturated hydrocarbons with

delocalized electrons

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