“Radiation is an energy in the form of electro-magnetic waves or particulate matter, traveling in the air.”
Forces: There are many interactions among nuclei. It turns out that there are forces other than the electromagnetic force and the gravitational force which govern the interactions among nuclei.
Einstein in 1905m showed 2 more laws: energy/mass, and binding energy
Atoms are composed of smaller particles referred to as:
Basic Model of a Neutral Atom.
Electrons (-) orbiting nucleus of protons (+) and neutrons. Same number of electrons as protons; net charge = 0.
Atomic number (number of protons) determines element.
Mass number (protons + neutrons)
If a nucleus is unstable for any reason, it will emit and absorb particles. There are many types of radiation and they are all pertinent to everyday life and health as well as nuclear physical applications.
Ionizing radiation is produced by unstable atoms. Unstable atoms differ from stable atoms because they have an excess of energy or mass or both.
Unstable atoms are said to be radioactive. In order to reach stability, these atoms give off, or emit, the excess energy or mass. These emissions are called radiation.
Types or Products of Ionizing Radiation
The electro-magnetic waves vary in their length and frequency along a very wide spectrum.