Some studies show effects of teratoginicity and carcinogenicity.
A. Basic Control Methods for External Radiation
Time: Minimize time of exposure to minimize total dose. Rotate employees to restrict individual dose.
Distance: Maximize distance to source to maximize attenuation in air. The effect of distance can be estimated from equations.
Shielding: Minimize exposure by placing absorbing shield between worker and source.
Personal Dosimeters: Normally they do not prevent exposures (no alarm), just record it. They can provide a record of accumulated exposure for an individual worker over extended periods of time (hours, days or weeks), and are small enough for measuring localized exposures Common types: Film badges; Thermoluminescence detectors (TLD); and pocket dosimeters.
Direct Reading Survey Meters and Counters: Useful in identifying source of exposures recorded by personal dosimeters, and in evaluating potential sources, such as surface or sample contamination, source leakage, inadequate decontamination procedures, background radiation.
Alpha Proportional or Scintillation counters Beta, gamma Geiger-Mueller or Proportional counters X-ray, Gamma Ionization chambers Neutrons Proportional counters
Continuous Monitors: Continuous direct reading ionization detectors (same detectors as above) can provide read-out and/or alarm to monitor hazardous locations and alert workers to leakage, thereby preventing exposures.
Long-Term Samplers: Used to measure average exposures over a longer time period. For example, charcoal canisters or electrets are set out for days to months to measure radon in basements (should be <4 pCi/L).
Elements of Radiation Protection Program