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Radiation
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Genetic Effects: Genetic effects to off-spring of exposed persons are irreversible and nearly always harmful. Doubling dose for mutation rate is approximately 50-80 rems. (Spontaneous mutation rate is approx. 10-100 mutations per million population per generation.)

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Critical Organs: Organs generally most susceptible to radiation damage include: Lymphocytes, bone marrow, gastro-intestinal, gonads, and other fast-growing cells. The central nervous system is relatively resistant. Many nuclides concentrate in certain organs rather than being uniformly distributed over the body, and the organs may be particularly sensitive to radiation damage, e.g., isotopes of iodine concentrate in the thyroid gland. These organs are considered "critical" for the specific nuclide.

Critical Organs: Organs generally most susceptible to radiation damage include: Lymphocytes, bone marrow, gastro-intestinal, gonads, and other fast-growing cells. The central nervous system is relatively resistant. Many nuclides concentrate in certain organs rather than being uniformly distributed over the body, and the organs may be particularly sensitive to radiation damage, e.g., isotopes of iodine concentrate in the thyroid gland. These organs are considered "critical" for the specific nuclide.

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Non-ionizing Radiation

Non-ionizing Radiation

Definition:

They are electromagnetic waves incapable of producing ions while passing through matter, due to their lower energy.

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All earth surface system components emit radiation---the sun and the earth are the components we are most interested in

All earth surface system components emit radiation---the sun and the earth are the components we are most interested in

The sun emits radiation composed of high energy infrared radiation, visible light, and ultraviolet radiation collectively known as shortwave radiation (SW)

The earth emits radiation composed of lower energy infrared radiation collectively known as long-wave radiation (LW)

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Non-ionizing Radiation

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Path of incoming solar radiation

Path of incoming solar radiation

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Albedo: a measure of how well a surface reflects insolation

Albedo: a measure of how well a surface reflects insolation

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Examples on Non-ionizing Radiation Sources

Examples on Non-ionizing Radiation Sources

Visible light

Microwaves

Radios

Video Display Terminals

Power lines

Radiofrequency Diathermy (Physical Therapy)

Lasers

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Other Manmade Sources of Non-Ionizing Radiation

Other Manmade Sources of Non-Ionizing Radiation

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Non-ionizing Radiation

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Non-ionizing Radiation

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Effects

Effects

Radiofrequency Ranges (10 kHz to 300 GHz)

Effects only possible at ten times the permissible exposure limit

Heating of the body (thermal effect)

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