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Vapor Pressure of Solutions
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Slide 1

Vapor Pressure

Vapor Pressure

Francois Marie Raoult

William Henry

Slide 2

Henryís Law

Henryís Law

The concentration of a dissolved gas in a solution is directly proportional to the pressure of the gas above the solution

Applies most accurately for dilute solutions of gases that do not dissociate or react with the solvent

Yes  CO2, N2, O2

No  HCl, HI

Slide 3

Raoultís Law

Raoultís Law

The presence of a nonvolatile solute lowers the vapor pressure of the solvent.

Psolution = Observed Vapor pressure of

the solution

P0solvent = Vapor pressure of the pure solvent

solvent = Mole fraction of the solvent

Slide 4

Liquid-liquid solutions in which both components are volatile

Liquid-liquid solutions in which both components are volatile

Modified Raoult's Law:

P0 is the vapor pressure of the pure solvent

PA and PB are the partial pressures

Slide 5

Raoultís Law Ė Ideal Solution

Raoultís Law Ė Ideal Solution

A solution that obeys Raoultís Law is called an ideal solution

Slide 6

Negative Deviations from Raoultís Law

Negative Deviations from Raoultís Law

Strong solute-solvent interaction results in a vapor pressure lower than predicted

Exothermic mixing = Negative deviation

Slide 7

Positive Deviations from Raoultís Law

Positive Deviations from Raoultís Law

Weak solute-solvent interaction results in a vapor pressure higher than predicted

Endothermic mixing = Positive deviation

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