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High Price of Materialism
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A meta-analysis of 170 studies of students and 99 studies of children showed that between 1952 and 1993 there was an increase of almost a full standard deviation in anxiety among both college student and child samples.

The 1990s median anxiety level was equivalent to the 84th percentile in the 1950s.

"The average American child in 1980 reported more anxiety than child psychiatric patients in the 1950s."

Twenge JM. The age of anxiety? Birth cohort change in anxiety and neuroticism, 1952-1993. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 2000; 79(6): 1007-21.

Slide 13

Flow model

Flow model

• The universe was not built for our happiness we have to make it happen

• Optimal experiences involve control and mastery

• Flow experiences lead to growth

• Flow experiences relate to sex, work, friendship, sport, interests and lifelong learning

“…being completely involved in an activity for its own sake. The ego falls away. Time flies. Every action, movement, and thought follows inevitably from the previous one, like playing jazz. Your whole being is involved, and you're using your skills to the utmost."

Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi

(pronounced chick-sent-me-high-ee)

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Social Costs of Materialism

Social Costs of Materialism

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Social Behavior

Social Behavior

Less pro-social and more anti-social behavior

Less empathy

More competitive and less cooperative

Decreased sharing and generosity

Less social capital

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Ecological Costs

Ecological Costs

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Ecological Behaviour

Ecological Behaviour

Care less about the environment

Fewer pro-environmental activities

More greed, consumption and waste

Higher Ecological Footprints

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Ecological Behaviour

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A Problem of Values

A Problem of Values

Organization of Values and Goals

Circumplex models

Adjacent goals are consistent

Opposing goals are conflictual

Same basic pattern across multiple studies in dozens of nations

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A Problem of Values

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A Problem of Values

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Grouzet et al., 2005, JPSP

Grouzet et al., 2005, JPSP

Slide 23

Intrinsic Values

Intrinsic Values

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