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Basic Biochemistry - Carbohydrate, Protein and Fat
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Because water is lost, the process is called:

Condensation synthesis, or

Condensation polymerization

Slide 12

Proteins

Proteins

When many amino acids bond together to create long chains, the structure is called a protein (it is also called a polypeptide because it contains many peptide bonds).

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Proteins

Proteins

Proteins are large molecules that may consist of hundreds, or even thousands of amino acids.

While there are hundreds of thousands of different proteins that exist in nature, they are all made up of different combinations of amino acids.

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Insulin

Insulin

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Fats

Fats

Fats are a sub-group of compounds known as lipids that are found in the body and have the general property of being hydrophobic (meaning they are insoluble in water).

Other lipids include waxes, and steroids, such as cholesterol.

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Fats

Fats

Fats are also known as triglycerides, molecules made from the combination of one molecule of glycerol with three fatty acids.

Glycerol

Fatty

acids

Triglyceride

R is a long chain of carbon and hydrogen

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Fats

Fats

The type of fatty acid in the molecule determines the type of fat:

Saturated fats

All single bonds in the carbon chain

Solids at room temperature

Mono-unsaturated fats

One double bond in the carbon chain, the remainder single

Liquids at room temperature

Polyunsaturated fats

Two or more double bonds in the carbon chain

Liquids at room temperature

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Saturated Fats

Saturated Fats

All of the carbon carbon bonds are single bonds.

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Mono-Unsaturated Fats

Mono-Unsaturated Fats

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Poly-Unsaturated Fats

Poly-Unsaturated Fats

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