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Biochemistry. The Chemistry of Life
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Slide 1

Biochemistry

Biochemistry

Lysozyme

a protein

Slide 2

Chemical Bonds

Chemical Bonds

Covalent bonds form between atoms of nonmetals by sharing of electrons

- Molecules bond covalenty

Ionic bonds form between oppositely charged ions after the transfer of electrons

- Salts bond ionically

Slide 3

Organic Molecules

Organic Molecules

Organic molecules are molecules composed of carbon and hydrogen, and often containing other elements such as phosphorus, sulfur, oxygen and nitrogen

Slide 4

Elements of Life

Elements of Life

Carbon

Hydrogen

Phosphorus

Sulfur

Oxygen

Nitrogen

Six elements make up 96% of your mass!

Slide 5

Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates

There are two types of carbohydrates:

The simple sugars

Glucose, sucrose, fructose (and many others)

The complex carbohydrates.

Carbohydrates that are made of long chains of sugars

Starches, cellulose, glycogen

Slide 6

Simple Sugars

Simple Sugars

All carbohydrates are made up of units of sugar (also called saccharide units).

Carbohydrates that contain only one sugar unit are called monosaccharides.

Glucose

Fructose

Slide 7

Simple Sugars

Simple Sugars

Disaccharides have two sugar units bonded together.

For example, common table sugar is sucrose (below), a disaccharide that consists of a glucose unit bonded to a fructose unit.

Slide 8

Complex Carbohydrates

Complex Carbohydrates

Complex carbohydrates are polymers of the simple sugars.

In other words, the complex carbohydrates are long chains of simple sugar units bonded together.

For this reason the complex carbohydrates are often referred to as polysaccharides.

Slide 9

Complex Carbohydrates

Complex Carbohydrates

Starch (below) is a polymer of the monosaccharide glucose (n is the number of repeating glucose units and ranges in the 1,000's).

Starches and cellulose are complex carbohydrates used by plants for energy storage and structural integrity.

Slide 10

Complex Carbohydrates

Complex Carbohydrates

Glycogen, another polymer of glucose, is a polysaccharide used by animals to store energy.

Both starch and glycogen are polymers of glucose.

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