Endoscopy, is the examination of internal body cavities using a specialized medical instrument called an endoscope.
Physicians use endoscopy to diagnose, monitor, and surgically treat various medical problems.
An endoscope is a slender, flexible tube equipped with lenses and a light source. Illumination is done by the help of a number of optical fibres.
Reflected light rays are collected by CCD( Charge coupled device) and electrical signals are produced, which are fed to the video monitor to get image.
Thorough one channel of endoscope water and air is conducted to wash and dry the surgical site.
The endoscope also has a channel through which surgeons can manipulate tiny instruments, such as forceps, surgical scissors, and suction devices.
A variety of instruments can be fitted to the endoscope for different purposes.
A surgeon introduces the endoscope into the body either through a body opening, such as the mouth or the anus, or through a small incision in the skin.
The endoscope gives visual evidence of the problem, such as ulceration or inflammation
It can be used to collect a sample of tissue; remove problematic tissue, such as polyps
It is used to take photograph of the hollow internal organs
Depending on the body part, each type of endoscopy has its own special term, such as
laparoscopy (abdomen, uterus, fallopian tube),
laryngoscopy (vocal cords),
arthroscopy (joint) and