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Human immune system
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Note: Variable region recognizes the anitgens.

Slide 11

How an antibody operates/works?

How an antibody operates/works?

Deactivation of a bacterium by an antibody.

Slide 12

The Pathway of Specific Immune Response

The Pathway of Specific Immune Response

Slide 13

The Pathway of Specific Immune Response

Slide 14

Cellular Immunity .vs. Antibody Immunity

Cellular Immunity .vs. Antibody Immunity

Carried out by T-Cells

Infected cells are killed by Cytotoxic T Cells.

Carried out by B-cells

Antibodies are produced and dumped into blood stream.

Antibodies bind to antigens and deactivate them.

Cellular Immunity Antibody or Humoral Immunity

Slide 15

Immune Response Explained

Immune Response Explained

Antigen infects cells.

Macrophage ingests antigen and displays portion on its surface.

Helper T- Cell recognizes antigen on the surface of the macrophage and becomes active.

Active Helper T-Cell activates Cytotoxic T-Cells and B-Cells.

Cytotoxic T-Cells divide into Active Cytotoxic T-cells and Memory T Cells.

Active Cytotoxic T-Cells kill infected cells.

At the same time, B-Cells divide into Plasma Cells and Memory B- Cells.

Plasma cells produce antibodies that deactivate pathogen.

Memory T and Memory B cells remain in the body to speed up the response if the same antigen reappears.

Supressor T-Cells stop the immune response when all antigens have been destroyed.

Slide 16

Immune Response Summary

Immune Response Summary

Displays copy of antigen on surface of cell

Cellular Immunity

Antibody Immunity

Slide 17

Primary .vs. Secondary Immune Response

Primary .vs. Secondary Immune Response

Primary Immune Response

This is a response to an invader the First time the invader infects the body.

No measurable immune response for first few days.

Next 10 15 days antibody production grows steadily

Secondary Immune Response

A more rapid response to an invader the 2nd time it invades the body.

Antibody production increases dramatically and in a much shorter time period

Slide 18

Primary .vs. Secondary Immune Response

Primary .vs. Secondary Immune Response

Slide 19

Passive .vs. Active Immunity

Passive .vs. Active Immunity

Active Immunity

This is immunity where the body is actively producing antibodies to fight infection.

Ex: You have a throat infection and you are actively creating antibodies to fight it.

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