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Human immune system
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Biology 2201

Biology 2201

Unit 3 Dynamic Equilibrium

Section 6- Immune System

Slide 2

What is Immunity?

What is Immunity?

Slide 3

Immunity

Immunity

Immunity

The ability of the body to fight infection and/or foreign invaders by producing antibodies or killing infected cells.

Immune System

The system in the body responsible for maintaining homeostasis by recognizing harmful from nonharmful organisms and produces an appropriate response.

Slide 4

Foreign Invaders

Foreign Invaders

Called Pathogens

Viruses, bacteria or other living thing that causes disease/immune response.

Antigens

Toxins that pathogens produce that cause harm to an organism.

Slide 5

Parts of the Immune System

Parts of the Immune System

Blood - White Blood Cells in particular.

Lymph nodes

Thymus Gland Produces T Lymphocytes

Bone Marrow Produces B Lymphocytes

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How does the body fight infection/foreign invaders?

How does the body fight infection/foreign invaders?

The Bodys THREE lines of Defense

First Line of Defense The Skin

Provides Physical and Chemical barriers

Physical hard to penetrate, made of indigestible keratin

Chemical tears, sweat

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Second Line of Defense  Nonspecific Immune Response

Second Line of Defense Nonspecific Immune Response

These are defenses the body uses no matter what the invader may be. These defenses include:

Phagocytosis done by Macrophages

Natural Cell Killers

Inflammation - caused by release of Histamine from leukocytes

Fever caused by histamines. The fever (high temp) kills invaders by denaturing their proteins.

Macrophage: A phagocytic cell found in the liver, spleen, brain and lungs. Travels

to all areas of the body to find and eat pathogens.

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How does the body fight infection/foreign invaders?

Slide 9

This is a specific response to a specific pathogen/antigen.

This is a specific response to a specific pathogen/antigen.

The response involves the creation of Antibodies.

Third Line of Defense Specific Immune Response

Slide 10

Antibodies

Antibodies

Y-shaped protein molecule.

Made up of variable and constant regions.

Made up of Heavy and Light chains.

Produced by B-Lymphocytes

Function: Recognize antigens, bind to and deactivate them.

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