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Recombinant DNA and Polymerase chain reaction
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RECOMBINANT DNA AND POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTIONS

RECOMBINANT DNA AND POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTIONS

Slide 2

DNA  Double Helix Structure

DNA Double Helix Structure

Each spiral strand is composed of a sugar phosphate backbone and attached bases

4 Bases: Adenine (A), Guanine(G),

Cytosine (C), and Thymine (T).

Form Base Pairs; A with T and C with G in the complementary strand via

hydrogen bonding (non- covalent)

The strands can be cut by

restriction enzymes, e.g. ECOR1

What do we already know

Slide 3

Bacteria are often used in biotechnology as they have plasmids

Bacteria are often used in biotechnology as they have plasmids

A plasmid a circular piece of DNA that exists apart from the chromosome and replicates independently of it.

Bacterial Structure

Slide 4

Fill in the blanks of the worksheet

Fill in the blanks of the worksheet

Slide 5

DNA that has been cut from one strand of DNA and then inserted into the gap of another piece of DNA that has been broken.

DNA that has been cut from one strand of DNA and then inserted into the gap of another piece of DNA that has been broken.

The host DNA is often a bacterial cell such as E coli.

The purpose of splicing the gene into the host DNA is to produce many copies of it.

As bacteria reproduce in a very short time it is possible to make millions of

copies of the gene fairly quickly.

What is Recombinant DNA?

Slide 6

The required gene e.g. Insulin, is cut from the DNA using a restriction enzyme.

The required gene e.g. Insulin, is cut from the DNA using a restriction enzyme.

A circular piece of DNA, called a plasmid, is removed from the bacterial cell and is cut open using the same restriction enzyme.

The cut out human gene is then mixed with the bacterial plasmids in a test tube.

Because they have been cut with the same enzyme, the cut ends of the plasmid and the end of the human gene match. Often called sticky ends

The enzyme DNA ligase is used to stick the ends together.

How do we make it?

Slide 7

Fill in the blanks of the worksheet

Slide 8

Re-Introducing the Plasmid Back - TRANSFORMATION

Re-Introducing the Plasmid Back - TRANSFORMATION

Now the plasmids that contains the introduced gene (recombinant DNA) need to be reintroduced into the bacteria so they can multiply and make more of the gene.

Can be done by combining them in a test tube with CaCl2. The high concentration of calcium ions makes the membranes of the bacteria more porous.

This then allows the plasmids to move into the bacterial cells.

Not all bacteria will take up a plasmid

and this is why the monitoring must

happen.

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