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Variation and mutation
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Evolutionary Concepts: Variation and Mutation

Evolutionary Concepts: Variation and Mutation

Slide 2

Definitions and Terminology

Definitions and Terminology

Microevolution

Changes within populations or species in gene frequencies and distributions of traits

Macroevolution

Higher level changes, e.g. generation of new species or higherlevel classification

Slide 3

Gene

Gene

Section of a chromosome that encodes the information to build a protein

Location is known as a locus

Slide 4

Allele

Allele

Varieties of the information at a particular locus

Every organism has two alleles (can be same or different)

No limit to the number of alleles in a population

Slide 5

Zygosity

Zygosity

Homozygous:

Two copies of the same allele at one locus

Heterozygous:

Two different alleles at one locus

Slide 6

Genotype

Genotype

Genetic information contained at a locus

Which alleles are actually present at a locus

Example:

Alleles available: R and W

Possible genotypes:

RR, RW, WW

Slide 7

Phenotype

Phenotype

Appearance of an organism

Results from the underlying genotype

Slide 8

Phenotype

Phenotype

Example 1:

Alleles R (red) and W (white), codominance

Genotypes: RR, RW, WW

Phenotypes: Red, Pink, White

Slide 9

Phenotype

Phenotype

Example 2:

Alleles R (red) and w (white), simple dominance

Genotypes: RR, Rw, ww

Phenotypes: Red, Red, white

Slide 10

Dominant and Recessive Alleles

Dominant and Recessive Alleles

Dominant alleles:

Dominate over other alleles

Will be expressed, while a recessive allele is suppressed

Recessive alleles:

Alleles that are suppressed in the presence of a dominant allele

Slide 11

Gene Pool

Gene Pool

The collection of available alleles in a population

The distribution of these alleles across the population is not taken into account!

Slide 12

Allele frequency

Allele frequency

The frequency of an allele in a population

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