Importance of natural vegetation and forests :
Forest constitute one of the most important basic natural resources of the country.
Ecological view :
Forests help in occurrence of rainfall, promote soil conservation in catchment areas, regulate runoff, improve moisture holding capacity of the soils and maintain ecological balance.
Point of economy :
Forest lands can be utilized as grazing grounds for livestock. Great demand for timber which resulted into development of commercial forestry. Many products like charcoal wood, pulp and matchwood, canes, rose wood, sandal wood, lac, resins, honey, herb, fruits, dyes, tans, kendu are obtained from forest which highly commercial value both conservation and development of forest resource is as important as agriculture and industry.
Forest Types :
Terrain, climate, soil and water conditions greatly influence the character and type of vegetation. The Himalayan region, possesses a variety of vegetation with a distinctive character of alpine type at higher altitudes and this region is clearly distinguished from the rest of the country. Climatic factors mainly temperature and rainfall determine which plant community can flourish in a specific habitat. Soils and drainage considerably introduce modifications, and thus we have edaphic types such as the tidal forests.
Tropical wet evergreen and semi evergreen forests are found in Southern Western Ghats, north-eastern India and Plains of West Bengal with altitude ranging from 500-1500 mts and rainfall exceeding 200cms. Height of trees is from 45-60mts.Vegetation is very dense. Variety of species is very large consists of rose wood, paan, aini, telsur.
Tropical moist deciduous forests are found in Western ghats and ChotaNagpur plateau and Siwaliks of Himalayas. These forests have hilly terrains and plateau regions with rainfall between 100-200cms. These are tropical monsoon forests with tall trees which rise upto 25-60mts. Teak is a dominant species and other species are sandal wood, sal and shisham