Acids are proton (hydrogen ion, H+) donors
Acids have a pH lower than 7
Acids taste sour
Acids effect indicators
Blue litmus turns red
Methyl orange turns red
Acids react with active metals, producing H2
Acids react with carbonates
Acids neutralize bases
Strong acids are assumed to be 100% ionized in solution (good H+ donors).
Weak acids are usually less than 5% ionized in solution (poor H+ donors).
Acids Have a pH less than 7
Blue litmus paper turns red in contact with an acid.
Methyl orange turns red with addition of an acid
Acids react with active metals to form salts and hydrogen gas.
Mg + 2HCl MgCl2 + H2(g)
Zn + 2HCl ZnCl2 + H2(g)
Mg + H2SO4 MgSO4 + H2(g)
2HC2H3O2 + Na2CO3
2 NaC2H3O2 + H2O + CO2
Effects of Acid Rain on Marble (calcium carbonate)
HCl + NaOH NaCl + H2O
Neutralization reactions ALWAYS produce a salt and water.
H2SO4 + 2NaOH Na2SO4 + 2H2O
2HNO3 + Mg(OH)2 Mg(NO3)2 + 2H2O
Bases are proton (hydrogen ion, H+) acceptors
Bases have a pH greater than 7
Bases taste bitter
Bases effect indicators
Red litmus turns blue
Phenolphthalein turns purple
Solutions of bases feel slippery
Bases neutralize acids
Bases are Proton (H+ ion) Acceptors
Sodium hydroxide (lye), NaOH
Potassium hydroxide, KOH
Magnesium hydroxide, Mg(OH)2
Calcium hydroxide (lime), Ca(OH)2
OH- (hydroxide) in base combines with H+ in acids to form water