Developed rules of logic
All trees need light.
An oak is tree.
Therefore, oaks need light.
This dog needs lungs, therefore all dogs need lungs
All dogs have lungs, therefore this dog has lungs
Aristotle favored deductive reasoning
Wrote on politics
Assembled 158 constitutions to compare
Three type of governments existed
Rule by one man—monarchy/tyranny
Rule by a few men—aristocracy/oligarchy
Rule by many—polity/democracy
Individual considered greater than the state
Wrote on ethics
Happiness sought after naturally
Three levels of happiness
Based on pleasure
Based on honor
Based on contemplation, philosophy
Advocated the Golden Mean
Money is not the means to happiness
Book describing speech to influence others
Ethos—power of persuasion created by the character
Pathos—power of persuasion created by passion
Logos—power of persuasion contained in the speech itself
Taught Alexander the great
Therefore was mistrusted by Athenians
Basis of latter medieval science and religion
Ideas had internal consistency
Ideas were adopted by St. Thomas Aquinas and the Catholic Church
The world is rational (i.e., science)
The world can be understood by examining the fundamental
Truth is unchanging
Science is available to all
How to learn systematically
Rules of logic
The belief that the universe possesses and is governed according to a comprehensive regulating intelligence, and that this same intelligence is reflected in the human mind, rendering it capable of knowing the cosmic order, was one of the most characteristic and recurring principles in the central tradition of Hellenic thought.
— Tarnas, The Passion of the Western Mind, p 47.
"I cannot but greatly wonder at those who think that we must attend to none but the Greeks as to the most ancient facts, and learn the truth from them only, and that we are not to believe ourselves or other men . Indeed they admit themselves that it is the Egyptians, the Chaldeans and the Phoenicians (for I will not now include ourselves [Jews] among those) that have preserved the memory of the most ancient and lasting tradition. "