# FluidsPage 1

Slide 1

## Fluids

This hot air balloon has a fluid in it: a gas

Slide 2

Fluids

A fluid is a liquid or a gas

As you know, fluids do not have a definite shape, unlike solids

Fluids can “flow,” which is how they move

This picture shows one fluid flowing into and mixing with another fluid

Slide 3

## Random movement

Fluid particles move around randomly, hitting other particles

This means that we cannot predict where one particle of a fluid will be in the future

The fluid, however, which is made of many particles, doesn’t move randomly, and we can predict where it will move

This shows the random movement of one particle in a fluid

Slide 4

## Concentration

In physics and chemistry, “concentration” means how much of something (mass, volume, or number of particles) there is in a unit volume (liters is most commonly used)

Brackets like this: [] around the name of a substance mean its concentration

mass of x vol. of x # of particles of x

tot. vol. total vol. total volume

For example, if I mix 10 g of salt into 2 L of water, what is the [salt]?

[salt]=5g/L

[x]= or or

Slide 5

## Dilute or Concentrated?

If something is “dilute,” it has a lower concentration than something else

If something is “concentrated,” it has a higher concentration than something else

These cups have different concentrations of a substance in water. Which is the most dilute and which is the most concentrated?

Slide 6

## Diffusion

Diffusion is the spreading out of fluid particles in their container until their concentration is the same everywhere

The particles always move from high concentration (concentrated) to low concentration (dilute) in diffusion

In this picture, particles are diffusing from the more concentrated area on the left to the more dilute area on the right

Slide 7

Diffusion is caused by the random movement of the particles in the fluid

How fast diffusion happens can change with temperature and the mass of the particles that are diffusing

Diffusion happens faster at higher temperatures and with particles that have lower masses

water

sugar