By SG Bhuvan Kumar
- deficiency diseases
History of vitamins :
The story of vitamin dates back to 18th century.
Sailors of this period knew that eating of liver cures a disease called night blindness and
Eating of lemons cures another disease called scurvy.
Also cod liver oil cures a disease called rickets
In 1912, Sir H.G. Hopkins first identified Vitamins in MILK and named it as Accessory factors.
Funk named the accessory factors as Vitamins (Vital amines).
Vitamins are micronutrients, which are very much essential for growth and for metabolism.
If antibiotics are indiscriminately taken, the bacteria present in the intestines which synthesize the Vitamins will be killed and it leads to Vitamin deficiency disorders
Vitamins are classified into two types – based on their solubility .
They are -
Water soluble vitamins & Fat soluble vitamins. Water soluble Vitamins - Vitamin ‘B’ complex and Vitamin ‘C’
Fat soluble vitamins. - Vitamin A, Vitamin D, Vitamin E and Vitamin K
Vitamin B Complex is group of Vitamins.
It contains –
a) Thiamine – B1 e) Cyanocobalamin – B12
b) Riboflavin – B2 f) Folic acid
c) Niacin - B3 g) Pantothenic acid
d) Pyridoxine – B6 h) Biotin
Thiamine is also known as
It is needed for the activity of some of the
enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism.
Deficiency disease - Beri-Beri.
In this disease, the calf muscles become tender,
vomiting, tremors, convulsions, loss of appetite are seen.
Sources: Cereals like wheat, oil seeds like groundnut, milk, meat, fish.
Riboflavin is otherwise known as Vitamin-B2.
Functions: Riboflavin is essential for oxidation reduction reactions in the cell and in cellular respiration.
Sources: It is present in milk, eggs, liver, kidney and green leafy vegetables.
Deficiency disorders: Deficiency of riboflavin result in Glossitis
Mouth cracks at corners.
Photophobia, scaly skin and watering of eyes are some of the