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Direct heat utilization of geothermal energy
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Direct heat utilization of geothermal energy

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World Wide Direct Utilization

World Wide Direct Utilization

Approximately 72 countries

Installed capacity: 28,268 MWt

Energy Use: 273,372 TJ/yr (75,943 GWh/yr) (enough to heat 3.4 million homes)

Saving 129 million bbl (19.2 mill. tonnes) of oil per year

Largest use: geothermal (ground-source) heat pumps used for both heating and cooling

World Wide

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What is Direct-Use: Heating and Cooling

What is Direct-Use: Heating and Cooling

Swimming, bathing and balneology

Space heating and cooling

Including district energy (heating/cooling) systems

Agriculture applications

Greenhouse heating

Aquaculture applications

Fish pond and raceway heating

Industrial processes

Including food and grain drying

Geothermal heat pumps

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World Wide Direct Utilization

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Temperature use for direct use applications

Temperature use for direct use applications

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Advantages of Direct-Use of Geothermal Energy

Advantages of Direct-Use of Geothermal Energy

Can use low- to intermediate temperature resources (<150oC)

These resources are more wide-spread (80 countries)

Direct heat use (no conversion high efficiency)

Use conventional water-well drilling equipment

Use conventional, off-the-shelf equipment

(allow for temperature and chemistry of fluid)

Minimum start-up-time

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Advantages of Direct-Use of Geothermal Energy

Advantages of Direct-Use of Geothermal Energy

Can be used on a small scale (mom and pop operation)

Individual home

Single greenhouse

Single aquaculture pond

Can also be large scale operation

District heating

Food, lumber and mineral ore drying

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Advantages of Direct-Use of Geothermal Energy

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Equipment (1)

Equipment (1)

Often necessary to isolate geothermal fluid to prevent corrosion or scaling

Care taken to prevent oxygen from entering system

Dissolved gases and minerals (boron, arsenic, hydrogen sulfide, etc.) May be harmful to plants and animals

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Equipment (2)

Equipment (2)

Downhole and circulation pumps

Heat exchangers

Transmission and distribution pipelines

Heat extraction equipment

Peaking or back-up plants

Fluid disposal system

Typical equipment includes:

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