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Biochemistry of Cells
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Common Functional Groups

Slide 14

Giant Molecules - Polymers

Giant Molecules - Polymers

Large molecules are called polymers

Polymers are built from smaller molecules called monomers

Biologists call them macromolecules

Slide 15

Examples of Polymers

Examples of Polymers

Proteins

Lipids

Carbohydrates

Nucleic Acids

Slide 16

Most Macromolecules are Polymers

Most Macromolecules are Polymers

Polymers are made by stringing together many smaller molecules called monomers

Nucleic Acid Monomer

Slide 17

Linking Monomers

Linking Monomers

Cells link monomers by a process called condensation or dehydration synthesis (removing a molecule of water)

This process joins two sugar monomers to make a double sugar

Remove H

Remove OH

H2O Forms

Slide 18

Breaking Down Polymers

Breaking Down Polymers

Cells break down macromolecules by a process called hydrolysis (adding a molecule of water)

Water added to split a double sugar

Slide 19

Macromolecules in Organisms

Macromolecules in Organisms

There are four categories of large molecules in cells:

Carbohydrates

Lipids

Proteins

Nucleic Acids

Slide 20

Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates include:

Small sugar molecules in soft drinks

Long starch molecules in pasta and potatoes

Slide 21

Monosaccharides:

Monosaccharides:

Called simple sugars

Include glucose, fructose, & galactose

Have the same chemical, but different structural formulas

C6H12O6

Slide 22

Monosaccharides

Monosaccharides

Glucose is found in sports drinks

Fructose is found in fruits

Honey contains both glucose & fructose

Galactose is called milk sugar

-OSE ending means SUGAR

Slide 23

Isomers

Isomers

Glucose & fructose are isomers because theyre structures are different, but their chemical formulas are the same

Slide 24

Rings

Rings

In aqueous (watery) solutions, monosaccharides form ring structures

Slide 25

Cellular Fuel

Cellular Fuel

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