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Biochemistry of Cells
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Monosaccharides are the main fuel that cells use for cellular work

ATP

Slide 26

Disaccharides

Disaccharides

A disaccharide is a double sugar

Theyre made by joining two monosaccharides

Involves removing a water molecule (condensation)

Bond called a GLYCOSIDIC bond

Slide 27

Disaccharides

Disaccharides

Common disaccharides include:

Sucrose (table sugar)

Lactose (Milk Sugar)

Maltose (Grain sugar)

Slide 28

Disaccharides

Disaccharides

Sucrose is composed of glucose + fructose

Maltose is composed of 2 glucose molecules

Lactose is made of galactose + glucose

GLUCOSE

Slide 29

Polysaccharides

Polysaccharides

Complex carbohydrates

Composed of many sugar monomers linked together

Polymers of monosaccharide chains

Slide 30

Examples of Polysaccharides

Examples of Polysaccharides

Starch

Glycogen

Cellulose

Glucose Monomer

Slide 31

Starch

Starch

Starch is an example of a polysaccharide in plants

Plant cells store starch for energy

Potatoes and grains are major sources of starch in the human diet

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Glycogen

Glycogen

Glycogen is an example of a polysaccharide in animals

Animals store excess sugar in the form of glycogen

Glycogen is similar in structure to starch because BOTH are made of glucose monomers

Slide 33

Cellulose

Cellulose

Cellulose is the most abundant organic compound on Earth

It forms cable-like fibrils in the tough walls that enclose plants

It is a major component of wood

It is also known as dietary fiber

Slide 34

Cellulose

Cellulose

SUGARS

Slide 35

Dietary Cellulose

Dietary Cellulose

Most animals cannot derive nutrition from fiber

They have bacteria in their digestive tracts that can break down cellulose

Slide 36

Sugars in Water

Sugars in Water

Simple sugars and double sugars dissolve readily in water

They are hydrophilic, or water-loving

WATER MOLECULE

SUGAR MOLECULE

-OH groups make them water soluble

Slide 37

Lipids

Lipids

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