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Acids, Bases, & Salts
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Slide 1

Acids, Bases, & Salts

Acids, Bases, & Salts

Slide 2

What is an ACID?

What is an ACID?

pH less than 7

Neutralizes bases

Forms H + ions in solution

Corrosive-reacts with most metals to form hydrogen gas

Good conductors of electricity

Slide 3

Acids Generate Ions

Acids Generate Ions

HNO3 + H2O  H3O+ + NO3

Slide 4

Weak vs. Strong Acids

Weak vs. Strong Acids

Weak Acids do not ionize completely: Acetic, Boric, Nitrous, Phosphoric, Sulfurous

Strong Acids ionize completely: Hydrochloric, Nitric; Sulfuric, Hydriodic

Slide 5

Common Acids

Common Acids

HCl- hydrochloric- stomach acid

H2SO4- sulfuric acid - car batteries

HNO3 nitric acid - explosives

HC2H3O2- acetic acid - vinegar

H2CO3-carbonic acid sodas

H3PO4- phosphoric acid -flavorings

Slide 6

Common Acids

Slide 7

What is a BASE?

What is a BASE?

pH greater than 7

Feels slippery

Dissolves fats and oils

Usually forms OH- ions in solution

Neutralizes acids

Slide 8

Weak vs. Strong Bases

Weak vs. Strong Bases

Weak Bases: ammonia; potassium carbonate, sodium carbonate

Strong Bases: sodium hydroxide; sodium phosphate; barium hydroxide; calcium hydroxide

Slide 9

Common Bases

Common Bases

NaOH- sodium hydroxide (LYE) soaps, drain cleaner

Mg (OH)2 - magnesium hydroxide-antacids

Al(OH)3-aluminum hydroxide-antacids, deodorants

NH4OH-ammonium hydroxide- ammonia

Slide 10

Types of Acids and Bases

Types of Acids and Bases

In the 1800s chemical concepts were based on the reactions of aqueous solutions.

Svante Arrhenius developed a concept of acids and bases relevant to reactions in H2O.

Arrhenius acid produces hydrogen ions in water.

Arrhenius base produce hydroxide ions in water.

Slide 11

A broader ,more modern concept of acids and bases was developed later.

A broader ,more modern concept of acids and bases was developed later.

Bronsted-Lowry acid- donates a hydrogen ion in a reaction.

Bronsted Lowry base accepts a hydrogen in a reaction.

Slide 12

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