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Acids, Bases, & Salts
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Conjugate acid- compound formed when an base gains a hydrogen ion.

Conjugate base compound formed when an acid loses a hydrogen ion.

Slide 13

pH Scale

pH Scale

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pH of Common Substances

pH of Common Substances

Timberlake, Chemistry 7th Edition, page 335

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Reactions with indicators

Reactions with indicators

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pH paper

pH paper

pH paper changes color to indicate a specific pH value.

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Buffers

Buffers

A buffer is a solution that resists changes in pH when small amounts of acids and bases are added.

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Situations in which pH is controlled

Situations in which pH is controlled

Heartburn

Planting vegetables and flowers

Fish Tanks and Ponds

Blood

Swimming pools

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Acids and Bases in Solution

Acids and Bases in Solution

HCl + H20  H3O + + Cl- (more hydronium ions, more acidic)

NaOH in water  Na+ + OH- (more hydroxide ions, more basic)

NaOH + HCl  NaCl + HOH Acid + Base yields type of salt and water

NH3 + H20  NH4+ + OH- ammonia gas + water yields ammonium and hydroxide ions

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Acid Rain

Acid Rain

Pollution in the air (sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen dioxide) combines with water to form various acids.

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Rapid changes in pH can kill fish and other organisms in lakes and streams.

Rapid changes in pH can kill fish and other organisms in lakes and streams.

Soil pH is affected and can kill plants and create sinkholes

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Acid Rain

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Acid Rain

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Acid Rain

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What is a SALT?

What is a SALT?

A salt is a neutral substance produced from the reaction of an acid and a base.

Composed of the negative ion of an acid and the positive ion of a base.

One of the products of a Neutralization Reaction

Examples: KCl, MgSO4, Na3PO4

Slide 26

Neutralization Reaction

Neutralization Reaction

A neutralization reaction is the reaction of an acid with a base to produce salt and water.

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