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Minerals
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Slide 32

Cleavage

Cleavage

Tendency to split along smooth planes of weaknessbetween atoms in crystal

Directly related to atomic structure

Related to Crystal Form

Every cleavage face is a possible crystal face

Not every crystal face is a cleavage face. Quartz commonly forms crystals but lacks cleavage.

4. Minerals can be identified by their physical properties = atomic structure

Slide 33

Other Properties

Other Properties

Crystal Form

Takes Luck & Practice

Well-formed crystals are uncommon

Crystal Classification is somewhat subtle

Fracture

4. Minerals can be identified by their physical properties = atomic structure

Slide 34

Identifying Minerals

Identifying Minerals

Geologic Setting

Some minerals occur in all geologic settings: quartz, feldspar, pyrite

Some minerals occur mostly in sedimentary settings: calcite, dolomite

Some minerals occur mostly in igneous settings: olivine

Some minerals occur mostly in metamorphic settings: garnet, kyanite

4. Minerals can be identified by their physical properties = atomic structure

Slide 35

Identifying Minerals

Identifying Minerals

Special Properties

Taste, Magnetism, Etc.

Experience and Reading

The best geologist is the one whos seen the most rocks.

Professional Methods

Chemical Analysis

X-Ray Studies

Thin Section

4. Minerals can be identified by their physical properties = atomic structure

Slide 36

Diffraction

Diffraction

4. Minerals can be identified by their physical properties = atomic structure

Slide 37

Diffraction

Diffraction

4. Minerals can be identified by their physical properties = atomic structure

Slide 38

A Common Example

A Common Example

Slide 39

Diffraction in Opal

Diffraction in Opal

4. Minerals can be identified by their physical properties = atomic structure

Slide 40

MAJOR MINERAL SUITES

MAJOR MINERAL SUITES

Elements

Metallic:Au, Ag, Cu

Not Al, Pb, Zn, Fe, etc.

Nonmetallic: C - Diamond, Graphite

Sulfur

4. Minerals can be identified by their physical properties = atomic structure

Slide 41

Copper Nugget

Copper Nugget

Slide 42

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