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Minerals
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MAJOR MINERAL SUITES

Sulfides: Dense, Usually Metallic Many Major Ores

Pyrite FeS2

Chalcopyrite CuFeS2

Galena PbS

Sphalerite ZnS2

Molybdenite MoS2

4. Minerals can be identified by their physical properties = atomic structure

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MAJOR MINERAL SUITES

MAJOR MINERAL SUITES

Halides: Usually Soft, Often Soluble

Halite NaCl

Fluorite CaF2

Sulfates: Soft, Light Color

Gypsum CaSO4

Barite BaSO4

4. Minerals can be identified by their physical properties = atomic structure

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MAJOR MINERAL SUITES

MAJOR MINERAL SUITES

Oxides: Often Variable, Some Ores

Hematite Fe2O3

Bauxite Al(OH) 3 (a hydroxide)

Corundum Al2O3 (Ruby, Sapphire)

Carbonates: Fizz in Acid, Give off CO2

Calcite CaCO3

Dolomite CaMg (CO3)2

4. Minerals can be identified by their physical properties = atomic structure

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MOST IMPORTANT MINERAL SUITE: The Silicate Minerals

MOST IMPORTANT MINERAL SUITE: The Silicate Minerals

Si + O = 75% of Crust

Silicates make up 95% + of all Rocks

SiO4: -4 charge

Link Corner-To-Corner by Sharing Oxygen atoms

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Nesosilicates - Isolated Tetrahedra

Nesosilicates - Isolated Tetrahedra

Representatives:

Garnet

Kyanite

Olivine

5. Silicates are the most important mineral group

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Sorosilicates - Paired Tetrahedra

Sorosilicates - Paired Tetrahedra

Epidote is the most common example

5. Silicates are the most important mineral group

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Cyclosilicates - Rings

Cyclosilicates - Rings

Beryl (Emerald)

Tourmaline

5. Silicates are the most important mineral group

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Inosilicates - Chains

Inosilicates - Chains

Single Chains (Pyroxenes)

5. Silicates are the most important mineral group

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Inosilicates - Chains

Inosilicates - Chains

Double Chains (Amphiboles)

5. Silicates are the most important mineral group

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Phyllosilicates - Sheets

Phyllosilicates - Sheets

5. Silicates are the most important mineral group

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Phyllosilicates - Sheets

Phyllosilicates - Sheets

Si2O5 sheets with layers of Mg(OH)2 or Al(OH)3

Micas

Clay minerals

Talc

Serpentine (asbestos) minerals

5. Silicates are the most important mineral group

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