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Minerals
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Slide 1

Minerals

Minerals

Slide 2

Take-Away Points

Take-Away Points

Chemical elements form in stars

Atoms bond by sharing electrons

Minerals are classified by their chemistry

Minerals can be identified by their physical properties = atomic structure

Silicates are the most important mineral group

Crystals are determined by mathematical rules called symmetry

Slide 3

Composition of the Sun

Composition of the Sun

1. Chemical elements form in stars

Slide 4

Composition of the Sun

Composition of the Sun

Abundance of Light Elements

Rarity of Lithium, Beryllium, Boron

Preference for Even Numbers

Abundance peak at Iron, trailing off after

1. Chemical elements form in stars

Slide 5

How Elements Form in Stars

How Elements Form in Stars

Sun: 4 H  He

He + particle  Mass 5 Unstable

He + He  Mass 8 Unstable

He + He + He  C

Add more He to make heavier elements

End of the line is iron for energy production

Atoms beyond Iron made in massive stars

1. Chemical elements form in stars

Slide 6

What are Planets Made of?

What are Planets Made of?

Same material as Sun

Minus the elements that remain mostly in gases

We find this pattern in a certain class of meteorites

1. Chemical elements form in stars

Slide 7

Chondrites

Chondrites

1. Chemical elements form in stars

Slide 8

The Earths Crust looks Very Different

The Earths Crust looks Very Different

1. Chemical elements form in stars

Slide 9

Composition of the Crust

Composition of the Crust

1. Chemical elements form in stars

Slide 10

Minerals are the Chemicals that make up the Earth

Minerals are the Chemicals that make up the Earth

Naturally Occurring

Inorganic

Chemical Compounds

About 5000 Known

200 Common

20 Rock-Forming

Slide 11

Atomic Bonding

Atomic Bonding

1. IONS

2. Atoms bond by sharing electrons

Slide 12

Atomic Bonding

Atomic Bonding

2. Electrical Neutrality

(+) and (-) Cancel Out

3. Bonding (Satisfy 1 & 2)

Ionic (NaCl)

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