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The Building Blocks of Matter Atoms
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Slide 7

Protons (+)

Protons (+)

Positively charged particles

Help make up the nucleus of the atom

Help identify the atom (could be considered an atom’s DNA)

Equal to the atomic number of the atom

Contribute to the atomic mass

Equal to the number of electrons

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Slide 8

Neutrons

Neutrons

Neutral particles; have no electric charge

Help make up the nucleus of the atom

Contribute to the atomic mass

Slide 9

Electrons (-)

Electrons (-)

Negatively charged particles

Found outside the nucleus of the atom, in the electron orbits/levels; each orbit/level can hold a maximum number of electrons ( 1st = 2, 2nd = 8, 3rd = 8 or 18, etc…)

Move so rapidly around the nucleus that they create an electron cloud

Mass is insignificant when compared to protons and neutrons

Equal to the number of protons

Involved in the formation of chemical bonds

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Slide 10

Hydrogen (H) Atom

Hydrogen (H) Atom

Notice the one electron in the first orbital

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Even though there are no neutrons present,

Hydrogen is still considered an atom

How many

more electrons

can fit in the 1st

orbital/ level?

Slide 11

Oxygen (O) Atom

Oxygen (O) Atom

Notice the two electrons in the first orbital/level and the six in the second

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+

+

+

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How many

more electrons

can fit in the 2nd

orbital/ level?

Slide 12

Sodium (Na) Atom

Sodium (Na) Atom

Notice the two electrons in the first orbital/level, eight in the second, and one in the third

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+

+

+

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How many

more electrons

can fit in the 3rd

orbital/ level?

Slide 13

The Atom’s “Center”

The Atom’s “Center”

Protons and neutrons are grouped together to form the “center” or nucleus of an atom.

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Notice that the electrons are not apart of the nucleus

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Slide 14

Quarks

Quarks

Particles that make up protons and neutrons

Notice the smaller particles that make up this neutron after you take a closer look.

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Notice the smaller particles that make up this proton after you take a closer look.

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