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Color Blindness
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Color Blindness

Color Blindness

By Jessie Wright

Slide 2

Normally, there are three kinds of

Normally, there are three kinds of

cones (each one sensitive to a

specific range of wavelengths):

"red" cones (64%)

"green" cones (32%)

"blue" cones (2%)

The normal human retina contains two kinds of light sensitive cells: the rod cells (active only in low light) and the cone cells (active in normal daylight and responsible for color perception).

Let there be light!!!

The different kinds of inherited color blindness result from partial or complete loss of function of one or more of the different cone systems.

Slide 3

Different Types of Color Blindness

Different Types of Color Blindness

Monochromacy: occurs when two or all three of the cone pigments are missing and color and lightness vision is reduced to one dimension.

Total color blindness

Dichromacy: occurs when only one of the cone pigments is missing and color is reduced to two dimensions.

Partial color blindness

red-green

blue-yellow

Slide 4

Total Color Blindness

Total Color Blindness

Also known as rod monochromacy, complete achromatopsia, and

typical monochromacy.

A rare, non-progressive inability to distinguish any colors as a

result of absent or nonfunctioning retinal cones.

See everything as white, black, or some shade of gray

Typically caused by a missense mutation (a switched amino acid)

in the CNGB3 gene.

Slide 5

CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE-GATED CHANNEL, BETA-3 (CNGB3)

CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE-GATED CHANNEL, BETA-3 (CNGB3)

Classic achromatopsia results from a complete loss of CNGB3 function.

CNGB3 encodes for the beta subunit of the cone cyclic nucleotide-gated cation channel, found photoreceptor plasma membranes.

Upon activation by cGMP, it leads to an opening of cation channels which thereby cause a depolarization of rod photoreceptors. This gene is essential for the generation of light-evoked electrical responses in cones.

CNGB3 is not required for vital processes outside the visual system.

Slide 6

CNGB3 Cont.

CNGB3 Cont.

The human CNGB3 gene consists of 18 exons

distributed over 200 kb of genomic sequence.

Gene type: protein coding

Domain: similar to ion transport protein

Cytogenetic locus: chromosome: 8; Location: 8q21-q22

Slide 7

Amino acid sequence

Amino acid sequence

Length: 809 aa

"MFKSLTKVNKVKPIGENNENEQSSRRNEEGSHPSNQSQQTTAQE ENKGEEKSLKTKSTPVTSEEPHTNIQDKLSKKNSSGDLTTNPDPQNAAEPTGTVPEQK EMDPGKEGPNSPQNKPPAAPVINEYADAQLHNLVKRMRQRTALYKKKLVEGDLSSPEA SPQTAKPTAVPPVKESDDKPTEHYYRLLWFKVKKMPLTEYLKRIKLPNSIDSYTDRLY LLWLLLVTLAYNWNCWFIPLRLVFPYQTADNIHYWLIADIICDIIYLYDMLFIQPRLQ FVRGGDIIVDSNELRKHYRTSTKFQLDVASIIPFDICYLFFGFNPMFRANRMLKYTSF FEFNHHLESIMDKAYIYRVIRTTGYLLFILHINACVYYWASNYEGIGTTRWVYDGEGN EYLRCYYWAVRTLITIGGLPEPQTLFEIVFQLLNFFSGVFVFSSLIGQMRDVIGAATA NQNYFRACMDDTIAYMNNYSIPKLVQKRVRTWYEYTWDSQRMLDESDLLKTLPTTVQL ALAIDVNFSIISKVDLFKGCDTQMIYDMLLRLKSVLYLPGDFVCKKGEIGKEMYIIKH GEVQVLGGPDGTKVLVTLKAGSVFGEISLLAAGGGNRRTANVVAHGFANLLTLDKKTL QEILVHYPDSERILMKKARVLLKQKAKTAEATPPRKDLALLFPPKEETPKLFKTLLGG TGKASLARLLKLKREQAAQKKENSEGGEEEGKENEDKQKENEDKQKENEDKGKENEDK DKGREPEEKPLDRPECTASPIAVEEEPHSVRRTVLPRGTSRQSLIISMAPSAEGGEEV

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