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Properties of Solids
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Solids

Solids

Image:Wikimedia Commons User Alchemistry-hp

Slide 2

Types of Solids

Types of Solids

Crystalline Solids: highly regular arrangement of their components

Amorphous solids: considerable disorder in their structures (glass, plastic).

Slide 3

Representation of Components in a Crystalline Solid

Representation of Components in a Crystalline Solid

Lattice: A 3-dimensional system of points designating the centers of components (atoms, ions, or molecules) that make up the substance.

Slide 4

Braggs Law

Braggs Law

xy + yz = n and xy + yz = 2d sin

 n = 2d sin 

Slide 5

Crystal Structures - Cubic

Crystal Structures - Cubic

Simple

Face-Centered

Body-Centered

**Knowledge of specific types of crystal structures and the study of the specific varieties of crystal lattices for ionic compounds is beyond the scope of this course and the AP Exam.

Slide 6

Crystal Structures - Monoclinic

Crystal Structures - Monoclinic

Simple

End Face-Centered

Slide 7

Crystal Structures - Tetragonal

Crystal Structures - Tetragonal

Simple

Body-Centered

Slide 8

Crystal Structures - Orthorhombic

Crystal Structures - Orthorhombic

Simple

End

Face-Centered

Body

Centered

Face

Centered

Slide 9

Crystal Structures  Other Shapes

Crystal Structures Other Shapes

Rhombohedral

Triclinic

Hexagonal

Slide 10

Closest Packing: Single Layer

Closest Packing: Single Layer

Photographer : Thierry Dugnolle

Slide 11

Closest Packing: Multiple Layers

Closest Packing: Multiple Layers

Model: Packing uniform, hard spheres to best use available space. This is called closest packing. Each atom has 12 nearest neighbors.

Slide 12

Metal Alloys

Metal Alloys

Substitutional Alloy: some metal atoms replaced by others of similar size.

brass = Cu/Zn

Slide 13

Metal Alloys (continued)

Metal Alloys (continued)

Interstitial Alloy: Interstices (holes) in closest packed metal structure are occupied by small atoms.

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