A solute is the dissolved substance in a solution.
A solvent is the dissolving medium in a solution.
Salt in salt water
Sugar in soda drinks
Carbon dioxide in soda drinks
Water in salt water
Water in soda
“Like Dissolves Like”
Polar and ionic solutes dissolve best in polar solvents
Nonpolar solutes dissolve best in nonpolar solvents
The solubility of MOST solids increases with temperature.
The rate at which solids dissolve increases with increasing surface area of the solid.
The solubility of gases decreases with increases in temperature.
The solubility of gases increases with the pressure above the solution.
Solids tend to dissolve best when:
Ground into small particles
Gases tend to dissolve best when:
The solution is cold
Pressure is high
A solution that contains the maximum amount of solute that may be dissolved under existing conditions is saturated.
A solution that contains less solute than a saturated solution under existing conditions is unsaturated.
A solution that contains more dissolved solute than a saturated solution under the same conditions is supersaturated.
An electrolyte is:
A substance whose aqueous solution conducts an electric current.
A nonelectrolyte is:
A substance whose aqueous solution does not conduct an electric current.
The ammeter measures the flow of electrons (current)
through the circuit.
If the ammeter measures a current, and the bulb
glows, then the solution conducts.
If the ammeter fails to measure a current, and the
bulb does not glow, the solution is non-conducting.
Sodium chloride solution