The property of a system, either open or closed, that regulates its internal environment so as to maintain a stable, constant condition.
Multiple dynamic equilibrium adjustment and regulation mechanisms make homeostasis possible.
Glucose is the simple sugar known as “blood sugar”
Glucose is required for brain function – the brain cannot use any other energy source
A healthy body maintains a blood sugar level of between 80 mg/dL and 110 mg/dL (slightly higher right after meals)
When blood glucose levels are low, the hormone glucagon stimulates the conversion of glycogen in the liver to glucose
Glucagon is a peptide hormone made of 29 amino acids. It is produced in the alpha cells of the (α-cells) of the islets of Langerhans, which are located in the pancreas.
The Role of Hormones
When blood glucose levels are high, the hormone insulin stimulates the conversion of glucose to stored glycogen in the liver.
Insulin is a peptide hormone made of 51 amino acids. It is produced in the beta cells of the
(β-cells) of the islets of Langerhans, which are located in the pancreas.
Autoimmune disease destroys the beta cells of the pancreas
Diabetic is dependent on exogenous insulin
There is currently no cure, though there many approaches under research
In North America, 5 – 10% of diabetics are Type I
A metabolic disorder due to insulin resistance (the cells are insensitive to the insulin that is present)
Onset of disease can be postponed by proper nutrition and exercise
90 – 95% of North American diabetics are Type II.
20% of the population over age 60 are Type II
Ca2+ ion is essential to organisms. It is functions include:
A component of bone